Pleural

Could A 250 ML Non-specific Serous Pleural Effussion Lead...

New postby Cari » 27 Oct 2012, 04:35

Could a 250 mL non-specific serous pleural effussion lead to respiratory failure in a 85 yr old pt?

Taking into consideration that the pt just had a lap chole? Pt wasn't excesively sedated.
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New postby Monte » 27 Oct 2012, 04:35

Pleural effussions (pleurisy for the older folks) can be serious. When even a small area of the lung is collapsed it can lead to pneumonia. This is even a greater risk since the pt is post op. The main thing you can do is encourage the pt to take slow deep breaths expanding the area around the effusion. This keeps any secretions mobile. They were probably given a incentive spirometer for this purpose. I also like the flutter devices for this.
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The pleural cavity is the space between what two layers?

New postby Lucie » 27 Oct 2012, 04:35

My notes say.
"Pleura: Is the lining of the lungs and is very much like the pericardium of the heart and the peritoneum of the abdominal structures. The pleura covers the lungs (visceral pleura) and lines the rib cage, diaphragm and pericardium (parietal pleura). PLEURAL CAVITY is the space between the two layers. It is empty except for a thin film of fluid that separates the two layers and allows the lungs to move within their sac without friction."

Between which two layers? It's not descriptive enough. Nothing too advanced or "sciencey" please.
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New postby Geneva » 27 Oct 2012, 04:35

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura. The layers actually slide over each other (no "space" to speak of), with the serous fluid providing a slick surface so there is no painful rubbing.
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When a person has a pleural effusion, what is that? And...

New postby Zula » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

When a person has a pleural effusion, what is that? And what is happening to the person on a cellular level?

I know that pleural effusion refers to an abnormal collection of fluids in the pleural cavity, but how does that affect respiration? What exactly is going on?
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New postby Dalila » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

Background: Pleural effusion is defined as an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. Excess fluid results from the disruption of the equilibrium that exists across pleural membranes.
In terms of anatomy, the pleural space is bordered by parietal and visceral pleura. Parietal pleurae cover the inner surface of the thoracic cavity, including the mediastinum, diaphragm, and ribs. Visceral pleurae envelop all surfaces of the lungs, including the interlobar fissures. This lining is absent at the hilus, where pulmonary vessels, bronchi, and nerves enter the lung tissue. The mediastinum completely separates the right and left pleural spaces.

Both parietal and visceral membranes are smooth, glistening, and semitransparent. Despite these similarities, the two membranes have unique differences in anatomic architecture, innervation, pain fibers, blood supply, lymphatic drainage, and function. For example, the visceral pleurae contain no pain fibers and have a dual blood supply (bronchial and pulmonary).


Pathophysiology: Pleural effusion is an indicator of a pathologic process that may be of primary pulmonary origin or of an origin related to another organ system or to systemic disease. It may occur in the setting of acute or chronic disease and is not a diagnosis in itself.

Normal pleural fluid has the following characteristics: clear ultrafiltrate of plasma, pH 7.60-7.64, protein content less than 2% (1-2 g/dL), fewer than 1000 WBCs per cubic millimeter, glucose content similar to that of plasma, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level less than 50% of plasma and sodium, and potassium and calcium concentration similar to that of the interstitial fluid.

The principal function of pleural fluid is to provide a frictionless surface between the two pleurae in response to changes in lung volume with respiration. The following mechanisms play a role in the formation of pleural effusion:


Altered permeability of the pleural membranes (eg, inflammatory process, neoplastic disease, pulmonary embolus)

Reduction in intravascular oncotic pressure (eg, hypoalbuminemia, hepatic cirrhosis)

Increased capillary permeability or vascular disruption (eg, trauma, neoplastic disease, inflammatory process, infection, pulmonary infarction, drug hypersensitivity, uremia, pancreatitis)

Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure in the systemic and/or pulmonary circulation (eg, congestive heart failure, superior vena caval syndrome)

Reduction of pressure in pleural space; lung unable to expand (eg, extensive atelectasis, mesothelioma)

Inability of the lung to expand (eg, extensive atelectasis, mesothelioma)

Decreased lymphatic drainage or complete blockage, including thoracic duct obstruction or rupture (eg, malignancy, trauma)

Increased fluid in peritoneal cavity, with migration across the diaphragm via the lymphatics (eg, hepatic cirrhosis, peritoneal dialysis)

Movement of fluid from pulmonary edema across the visceral pleura

Persistent increase in pleural fluid oncotic pressure from an existing pleural effusion, causing accumulation of further fluid

Iatrogenic causes (eg, central line misplacement)
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Is it dangerous to give water to pet/doggy when she/he had..

New postby Dierdre » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

Is it dangerous to give water to pet/doggy when she/he had a pleural effusion or a heart condition?

Is it dangerous to give water to pet when she/he had a pleural effusion or a heart condition or something that has to do with rapid heart beat and rapid breathing with accompanied fluid build up that can be seen like a fat hanging in the ribs or chest part of the doggy?
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New postby Joey » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

Ask the vet who diagnosed this condition. You should be following up with the vet for this anyway; it does affect the pumping of the heart and circulation.
If it's a temporary condition (as in, after accident with broken ribs) - hang in there.
If chronic illness, the important thing is to make your dog comfortable esp if pet is seriously ill. I have been thru this decision a few times and still it's hard to decide whether the dog is still happy and comfortable enough to continue...
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What would happen if there was a tear in the pleural...

New postby Cornell » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

What would happen if there was a tear in the pleural membrane?

Thats the stuff atround the lungs, what would happen if it got a hole or tear in it
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New postby Andria » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

Starting from the Anatomy, there are two types of pleural membrane; Parietal pleura which lines the thoracic cavity and the Visceral pleura which envelops the surface of the lungs. These two layers are separated by a potential space called pleural cavity which basically maintains a negative pressure within the space during each respiratory cycle.

When there is a disruption or tear in the pleural membrane, it affects the the overall respiratory cycle as the negative pressure no longer exist within the cavity causing the air to leak into the pleural space. This condition is called pneumothorax.
If the tear is only on the visceral pleura, it creates a "one-way valve" hence, causing the air to gush into the space during each inspiration but, not allowing to escape on expiration. This situation is life threatening which usually ends up in tension pneumothorax.
Many times, injury occurs to both layers especially after trauma during which time respiratory deterioration,and cardiovascular collapse occurs quickly due to life threatening pneumothorax. Death is imminent if those emergency are not identified and treated within the time scale.
Hope, this helps
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How does one get pleural effusion?

New postby Devon » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

Is this term as simple as it sounds- that fluids have invaded the lungs by aspiration of thin liquids? Is this term as simple as it sounds- that fluids have invaded the lungs by aspiration of thin liquids?
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New postby Justa » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

The pleura is the lining surrounding the lungs. a pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and the pleural membrane. there can be many causes. anything that compromises the normal integrity of the lungs or pleura can cause an effusion, such as: cancer, tuberculosis, mesothelioma, pneumonia, or any collagen vascular disease such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

any condition causing peripheral edema can also cause effusions. examples of those include congestive heart failure or liver failure
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My sister & I would like to set up a pleural...

New postby Fallon » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

My sister & I would like to set up a pleural mesothelioma blog. How do we go about doing this? ?

Our father has been diagnosed with this rare disease.
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New postby Truman » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

If you want to start free then you can go to blogger.com or wordpress.com
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If the pleural space lost its negative pressure, which of...

New postby Filiberto » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

If the pleural space lost its negative pressure, which of the following would be true?

A. Inspiration would be more difficult.
B. Expiration would be more difficult.
C. Surfactant wouldn't be needed.
D. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide would improve.
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New postby Toi » 27 Oct 2012, 04:36

A, because your lungs at rest/exhaled before inhalation is at a negative pressure. When you breath in air from the outside has a tendency to move into your lungs because the air pressure in your lungs is lower than the outside air pressure that's how we breathe in. A lost of negative pressure then would render inspiration to be more difficult.
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